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CPOTE2020 logo
6th International Conference on
Contemporary Problems of Thermal Engineering
Online | 21-24 September 2020

Abstract CPOTE2020-1125-A

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Assessment and optimization of the performance and emissions of a spark Ignition engine using alternative biofuels as additives

Joaquim COSTA, University of Minho, Portugal
Jorge MARTINS, University of Minho, Portugal
Francisco BRITO, University of Minho, Portugal
Margarida GONÇALVES, University of Nova Lisboa, Portugal
Luis DURÃO, University of Nova Lisboa, Portugal
Tiago ARANTES, University of Minho, Portugal

The use of alternative biofuels for Spark Ignition (SI) injection engines is done to diversify fuel sources, optimize engine performance and reduce fuel consumption, as well as pollutant and CO2 emissions. Additionally, when these biofuels are extracted from low grade wastes, they solve an important environmental problem while even providing value to an otherwise harmful waste. The use of biofuels as additives may change the dominant properties associated with combustion characteristics. Therefore, to optimize engine performance, minimize fuel consumption, and emissions with different biofuel properties, there are several parameters that need to be assessed, such as the ideal fuel combustion mixture, biofuel properties quality, fuel injection control and proper ignition on Spark ignition engine. In this study an experimental analysis of the use of fuel blends involving commercial gasoline (RON95, RON98), ethanol and bio-gasoline obtained from the pyrolysis of low-grade wastes was performed on a Spark ignition injection engine. This study involved laboratory experiments with these fuels in order to assess their performance in terms of emissions (HC, CO, and NOx), brake torque and power, fuel consumption and efficiency. A programmable electronic control unit (ECU) was used to regulate the air-fuel ratio / lambda (set for stoichiometry), and the ignition advance (for maximum brake torque, MBT). This was done for different engine speeds, for both maximum engine load and for a specified torque target. Experimental test results with the use of a mixture of bio-fuels, especially ethanol and bio-gasoline as additives with a maximum incorporation of 10% show that torque, power, efficiency, emissions such as CO and HC tend to be better than those obtained with RON95, RON98 and other fuel blends, whereas NOx increases with the addition of ethanol and bio-gasoline to the blend.

Keywords: Waste valorisation, Pyrolysis biofuel, Ethanol, Spark ignition engine, Performance and emissions
Acknowledgment: This work has been supported by FCT – Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia within the R&D Units Project Scope: UIDP/04077/2020. Joaquim da Costa is supported through a PhD Grant by Fundo de Desenvolvimento Capital Humano of the Government of Timor Leste.